Epicurus saw philosophy as a trade which helps people in the process of achieving life’s gratification. In his opinion, ethics was the highlight of philosophy, while logic and physics were methods for understanding the meaning of life. Epicurus thought, following the earlier Greek philosopher Democritus, that world doesn’t consist of special substances such as spirits, but of two simple things: particles (atoms, the indivisible ones) and absolute emptiness or void. The universe was limitless and eternal and all events within it were the result of interaction and movements of these particles in empty space. Furthermore, he got rid of determinism which was present in earlier “atomistic theory” – considering the random movements of particles in the void determinism cannot exist. That way he introduced the influence of free will on not just universe, but also individuals. As a consequence, new atomism hypothesised that physical reality, human society and moral law by which we live materialized as a spontaneous phenomenon that didn’t demand any divine intervention or a leader to introduce them to us.
Our world, like many others, was created by accident.
In more recent theory, it’s not possible to place atoms into the realm of real things, yet their existence is proven. The stable bonds between them construct all traits of the matter, like its colour or hardness. It’s impossible to slow down the movements of the atoms because there’s no friction in empty space, so they are in eternal vibration. Every phenomenon that exists is the result of these shivers.